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Tárgy adatok (2015. őszi félév)

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Ajánlott irodalom: Serway: Physics for Scientists and Engineers

Kiegészítő oktatási anyagok az érdeklődőknek

A tantárgy részletes tematikája

KINEMATICS: Motion in one dimension. Motion in two dimensions. Position vector. Average velocity, instantaneous velocity. Average acceleration, instantaneous acceleration. Position, velocity and acceleration in Cartesian and polar coordinates. Projectile motion. Circular motion. Curvilinear motion, tangential and radial accelerations.
THE LAWS OF MOTION: Inertial frames. Newton's laws. Force, mass. Normal force, tension, spring force, gravitational force, static and kinetic friction. Free body diagrams. The 1st cosmic speed.
WORK AND ENERGY: Work of a varying force. Kinetic energy and the work-energy theorem. Power.
POTENTIAL ENERGY: Work done by a spring. Work done by gravity. Work done by kinetic friction. Conservative and nonconservative forces. Potential energy. Conservation of mechanical energy. Changes in mechanical energy in the presence of nonconservative forces. Energy diagrams and the equilibrium of a system. The 2nd cosmic speed.
LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS: Linear momentum. Conservation of momentum. Elastic and inelastic collisions in 1D, 2D and 3D. Center of mass. Rocket propulsion.
ROTATION OF A RIGID OBJECT ABOUT A FIXED AXIS: Angular velocity vector, angular acceleration vector. Rotational kinetic energy. Moment of inertia. The parallel axis theorem. Torque. Work, power, energy.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: Angular momentum of a particle and a system of particles. Conservation of angular momentum. Gyroscopes. Analogy between translational and rotation motion.
STATIC EQUILIBRIUM: Conditions of equilibrium for a rigid object.
ACCELERATING FRAMES: Inertia forces: the translational inertia force, the centrifugal force, the Coriolis force, the Euler force. Discussion of motion in the rotating frame of the Earth.
OSCILLATORY MOTION: Simple harmonic motion, amplitude, phase constant, angular frequency. Mass attached to a spring. Energy of a simple harmonic oscillator. The simple pendulum. The physical pendulum. The torsional pendulum. Damped oscillations. Forced oscillations. Resonance.
WAVES: Transverse and longitudinal waves. Travelling waves in 1D. Reflection and transmission of waves. Sinusoidal waves, wavelength, period, wave number, angular frequency. The linear wave equation in 1D and in 3D. Spherical waves, plane waves. The Doppler effect, discussion using a spacetime diagram. Shock waves. Superposition and interference of sinusoidal waves. Standing waves: strings, air columns, membranes. Beats.
SPECIAL RELATIVITY, KINEMATICS: The concept of events and observers. The Galilean transformation. The isotropy of the speed of light in any inertial frame. Einstein's postulates. The synchronization of clocks. Spacetime intervals: timelike, lightlike and spacelike intervals. Minkowski diagrams and worldlines of particles and light. The relativity of simultaneity. Length contraction and proper length. Time dilation and proper time. Causality. The twins paradox, the rod-barn paradox, the two spaceships paradox. The paradox of the identically accelerated twins. The acoustic Doppler effect vs. the electromagnetic Doppler effect. Velocity transformation.
SPECIAL RELATIVITY, DYNAMICS: Linear momentum. Newton's 2nd law in its correct form. Kinetic energy. Connection between mass and energy. Relativistic formulas for elastic and inelastic collisions. Relation between the energy and the momentum of a particle. Acceleration due to a constant force.
TEMPERATURE: Thermal equilibrium, thermal contact. The 0th law of thermodynamics. Temperature scales. Thermal expansion of solids and liquids. The ideal gas. Extensive and intensive state variables: volume, mass, pressure, temperature.
HEAT AND THE 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: Internal energy. Heat. Heat capacity, specific heat, molar specific heat. Latent heat. Work done on an ideal gas. The 1st law of thermodynamics. Adiabatic, isobaric, isovolumetric, isothermal processes.
THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: Relationship between microscopic and macroscopic quantities. Average molecular kinetic energy, pressure, temperature. Degrees of freedom. The equipartition of energy. Specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. The adiabatic process on a P-V diagram. Specific heat of solids: the Dulong-Petit law. The distribution of atmospheric density at constant temperature: the Boltzmann distribution. Distribution of molecular speeds in an ideal gas: the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Collision frequency and mean free path.
HEAT ENGINES, ENTROPY AND THE 2ND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: Heat engines. Thermal efficiency. The 2nd law (Kelvin-Planck formulation). Refrigerators and heat pumps. The coefficient of performance. The 2nd law (Clausius). Reversible and irreversible processes. The Carnot engine. Reduced heat. Entropy. The 2nd law (in terms of entropy change). Change in entropy for an ideal gas and reversible processes. Adiabatic free expansion. Irreversible heat transfer. Macrostates, microstates, thermodynamic probability. Connection between entropy and probability.